[Otira Bridge]

ENCE 353: Introduction to Structural Analysis

Mark Austin,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of Maryland, College Park.
Notes from Class: (Fall 2022)


Here's what in-person means:

  • Attend classroom lectures and recitations. KEB 1200, 9-9.50am.
    Schedule will be posted on notes from class.

  • Adhere to University Health Center COVID-19 Protocols.

  • We will begin with an Introduction to Structural Engineering (2022 version).

  • Problem solving exercises (primarily old mid-term and final-exam questions).

  • Review of lecture material posted to the class web page. If the office hours
    does not work for you, come to class and we will answer your questions.

  • Review of solutions to recent midterm and final exam papers.

  • Midterm and final exams will be in-person.

  • Lecture and recitation content will be posted to notes from class.


Here's what online means:

  • There with no in-person contact.

  • For each lecture I will post the "lecture content" (pdf) and a "recorded video" (zoom video) to the notes from class page.

  • I will also post handouts and links to interesting web sites on notes from class .

  • Online office hours (zoom) where we can review the material and answer your questions.

  • E-mail submission of homework, midterm and final exams.
    Please see the detailed instructions (for naming of files) below.

  • The midterm and final exams will be open book and open notes.
    You will have 12 hours to complete and submit the midterm and final exams.

  • University requirements on academic integrity apply.


  • Added flexibility and support for self-paced learning.

  • Improved time management.

  • Opportunity to learn a few new technical skills along the way.

Creating Online Study Groups

  • If you are interested in learning who else is taking the class, perhaps to form
    an online study group, a listing of student names and contact e-mail addresses will be provided.

Office Hours

  • Mark Austin . In-Person and Online office hours will be as follows:

    M and W at 11 am, in-person and via Zoom.
    F at 9 am via Zoom.

    Join Zoom Meeting: https://umd.zoom.us/j/6517468335

    Even if you just want to drop-in to catch up, that'll be fine too!

  • Amir Eskandarinadef (TA/Grader) . E-mail: amires91 "at" umd.edu

    Please e-mail the TA and request he return your graded homework.

Submission of Homework

  • Homework will be posted on the notes from class web page.
    Scan your solution into a pdf file having the name:

    For example, the file name: ENCE353-Homework1-Austin-Mark.pdf would indicate homework 1 from Mark Austin.

    Log into gradescope, go to ENCE 353 and then click on the relevent homework link and upload your solution as a pdf file.

    Note: To avoid being asked for a six-digit course code, be sure to log onto gradescope from the e-mail accound listed on ELMS.

  • Solutions will be posted after the homework assignments have been graded.

Submission of Midterm and Final Exams

  • I will post exam on the "notes from class" web page at 9am on the day of the exam,
    and log into Zoom at 11 am (just in case you have questions).

  • You will have 12 hrs to work on your solution, scan and convert your solution into a pdf file having the name, e.g.,

    For example, the file name: ENCE353-Final-Austin-Mark.pdf would indicate midterm 1 exam paper from Mark Austin.

  • E-mail exam to austin "at" umd.edu with the subject heading ENCE 353: Final Exam ...
  • Good luck!

Midterm exam papers will be returned after they have been graded (be patient, grading 45 odd exams online takes time).


The class is an introduction to the basic tools of structural analysis and design.

The topics will be as follows:

  • Introduction (4 classes)
    • Overview of structural analysis and structural design.
    • Structural loads and structural design.
    • Quick review of statics, free body diagrams, equations of equilibrium.
    • Stability and determinacy.

  • Statically Determinate Trusses (4 classes)
    • Types and classification of trusses.
    • Method of joints, method of sections.
    • Compound trusses.

  • Statically Determinate Beams and Frames (6 classes)
    • Internal forces: shear and bending moment diagram for a beam.
    • Shear and moment diagrams for a frame.
    • Principle of Superposition
    • Qualitative drawing of deflection shape for a structure under applied loads.

  • Cables and Arches (4 classes)
    • Boundary conditions for arches.
    • Three-hinged arch structures.
    • Analysis of circular and parabolic arch structures.
    • Cables subject to uniformly distributed loads.
    • Simplified analysis of suspension structures.

  • Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Structures (4 classes)
    • Muller-Breslau Principle and general procedure for obtaining influence lines.
    • Qualitative influence lines for beams and frames.
    • Live-load patterns; determination of maximum response by influence lines.

  • Deflection of Structures (6 classes)
    • Differential equations and moment area method.
    • Principle of virtual work.
    • Method of virtual work to determine deflections.

  • Method of Consistent Deformations (Force Method) (6 classes)
    • General procedure.
    • Effects of support settlement (movement), temperature change, and fabrication errors.

  • Slope-Deflection Equations (Displacement Method) (6 classes)
    • General procedure for displacement method.
    • Differences between the force and displacement methods.
    • Slope-deflection equations and sign conventions.
    • Analysis of simple structures with the slope-deflection equations.


  • A knowledge of engineering mathematics (e.g., calculus, linear algebra, differential equations).
  • ENES220, MATH246 and permission of department.
  • Restricted to students in the College of Engineering.


  • Hibbeler R.C., Structural Analysis, 8th Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2012.


  • If you have a copy of Hibbeler that is not the 8th Edition, don't worry.
    To avoid confusion in the assignment of homework problems, we will distribute copies of the questions to be solved.


Coure assessment will be as follows:

  • Homework (20%).
  • Midterm 1 (20%): October 12,
    The exam will be open book and open notes.
    Three questions covering computation of indeterminacy, support reactions,
    shear and bending moment diagrams, tensile and compressive element-level forces.
  • Midterm 2 (20%): November 21,
    The exam will be open book and open notes.
    Three questions covering: (1) computation of displacements via integration of
    beam differential equations and/or moment area, and (2) arches and cables.
    Virtual work will not be on the exam.
  • Final (40%): December 17. Six questions: Question 1 is compulsory. Do three of the remaining five questions.
    Topics include: Moment area, virtual forces, virtual displacements, force method,
    analysis of cables and arches, bending moments and bending moment diagrams, flexibility matrices.


  • The midterm exams will spaced approximately one month apart.
    Midterm 1 will be in first week of March. Midterm 2 will be mid-April, approximately one month after Midterm 1.
  • There will be no midterm or final make-up exams.
  • Students may drop the lower midterm score if they do better in the final (i.e., the final exam can count for up to 60% of the overall grade).
  • The boundary between a B grade and an A grade will be 80%.
    The boundary between D/F grades and a C grade will be 50%.
    No extra credit will be allowed.
  • Accommodation for students with disabilities will be made.
  • Homework must be completed on engineering paper. Write on one side only.
  • We encourage students to work together on solutions to the in-class problems and homework problems.
    However, each student must hand in their own homework and will be held accountable for understanding the concepts employed in the problem solutions.
  • At the end of the semester, please participate in the evaluation of courses through CourseEvalUM.
    Your feedback is confidential and an important means of improving the course in future semesters.

Developed in August 2022 by Mark Austin
Copyright © 2011-2022, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland